Eastern Cottontail info via Wikipedia:
(J. A. Allen, 1890)
|Eastern cottontail range|
- Home range
- Cover requirements
- External links
The eastern cottontail can be found in meadows and shrubby areas in the eastern and south-central United States, southern Canada, eastern Mexico, Central America and northernmost South America. It is abundant in Midwest North America, and has been found in New Mexico and Arizona. Its range expanded north as forests were cleared by settlers. Originally, it was not found in New England, but it has been introduced there and now competes for habitat there with the native New England cottontail. It has also been introduced into parts of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. In the mid-1960s, the Eastern cottontail was introduced to Cuba, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Barbados, Bahamas, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Saint Croix and northern Italy, where it displayed a rapid territorial expansion and increase in population density.
Optimal eastern cottontail habitat includes open grassy areas, clearings, and old fields supporting abundant green grasses and herbs, with shrubs in the area or edges for cover. The essential components of eastern cottontail habitat are an abundance of well-distributed escape cover (dense shrubs) interspersed with more open foraging areas such as grasslands and pastures. Habitat parameters important for eastern cottontails in ponderosa pine, mixed species, and pinyon (Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands include woody debris, herbaceous and shrubby understories, and patchiness. Typically eastern cottontails occupy habitats in and around farms including fields, pastures, open woods, thickets associated with fencerows, wooded thickets, forest edges, and suburban areas with adequate food and cover. They are also found in swamps and marshes and usually avoid dense woods. They are seldom found in deep woods.
The eastern cottontail home range is roughly circular in uniform habitats. Eastern cottontails typically inhabit one home range throughout their lifetime, but home range shifts in response to vegetation changes and weather are common. In New England eastern cottontail home ranges average 1 hectare (1.4 acres) for adult males and 0.5 hectares (1.2 acres) for adult females but vary in size from 0.2 to 16.2 hectares (0.5 to 40 acres), depending on season, habitat quality, and individual. The largest ranges are occupied by adult males during the breeding season. In southwestern Wisconsin adult male home ranges averaged 3 hectares (6.9 acres) in spring, increased to 4 hectares (10 acres) in early summer, and decreased to 1 hectare (3.7 acres) by late summer. Daily activity is usually restricted to 10% to 20% of the overall home range.
In southeastern Wisconsin home ranges of males overlapped by up to 50%, but female home ranges did not overlap by more than 25% and actual defense of range by females occurred only in the immediate area of the nest. Males fight each other to establish dominance hierarchy and mating priority.
Eastern cottontails forage in open areas and use brush piles, stone walls with shrubs around them, herbaceous and shrubby plants, and burrows or dens for escape cover, shelter, and resting cover. Woody cover is extremely important for the survival and abundance of eastern cottontails. Eastern cottontails do not dig their own dens (other than nest holes) but use burrows dug by other species such as woodchucks. In winter when deciduous plants are bare eastern cottontails forage in less secure cover and travel greater distances. Eastern cottontails probably use woody cover more during the winter, particularly in areas where cover is provided by herbaceous vegetation in summer. In Florida slash pine flatwoods, eastern cottontails use low saw-palmetto (Serenoa repens) patches for cover within grassy areas.
Most nest holes are constructed in grasslands (including hayfields). The nest is concealed in grasses or weeds. Nests are also constructed in thickets, orchards, and scrubby woods. In southeastern Illinois tall-grass prairie, eastern cottontail nests were more common in undisturbed prairie grasses than in high-mowed or hayed plots. In Iowa most nests were within 64 m (70 yd) of brush cover in herbaceous vegetation at least 10 cm (4 in) tall. Nests in hayfields were in vegetation less than 20 cm (8 in) tall. Average depth of nest holes is 13 cm (5 in), average width 13 cm (5 in), and average length 18 cm (7 in). The nest is lined with grass and fur.
The eastern cottontail is chunky red-brown or gray-brown in appearance with large hind feet, long ears and a short fluffy white tail. Its underside fur is white. There is a rusty patch on the tail. Its appearance differs from that of a hare in that it has a brownish-gray coloring around the head and neck. The body is lighter color with a white underside on the tail. It has large brown eyes and large ears to see and listen for danger. In winter the cottontail's pelage is more gray than brown. The kits develop the same coloring after a few weeks, but they also have a white blaze that goes down their forehead; this marking eventually disappears. This rabbit is medium-sized, measuring 36–48 cm (14–19 in) in total length, including a small tail that averages 5.3 cm (2.1 in). Weight can range from 800 to 2,000 g (1.8 to 4.4 lb), with an average of around 1,200 g (2.6 lb). The female tends to be heavier, although the sexes broadly overlap in size. There may be some slight variation in the body size of Eastern cottontails, with weights seeming to increase from south to north, in accordance with Bergmann's rule. Adult specimens from the Florida Museum of Natural History, collected in Florida, have a mean weight of 1,018 g (2.244 lb). Meanwhile, 346 adult cottontails from Michigan were found to have averaged 1,445 g (3.186 lb) in mass.
The eastern cottontail is a very territorial animal. When chased, it runs in a zigzag pattern, running up to 29 km/h (18 mph). The cottontail prefers an area where it can hide quickly but be out in the open. Forests, swamps, thickets, bushes, or open areas where shelter is close by are optimal habitation sites for this species. Cottontails do not dig burrows, but rather rest in a form, a shallow, scratched-out depression in a clump of grass or under brush. It may use the dens of groundhogs as a temporary home or during heavy snow.
Eastern cottontails are crepuscular to nocturnal feeders; although they usually spend most of the daylight hours resting in shallow depressions under vegetative cover or other shelter; they can be seen at any time of day. Eastern cottontails are most active when visibility is limited, such as rainy or foggy nights. Eastern cottontails usually move only short distances, and they may remain sitting very still for up to 15 minutes at a time. Eastern cottontails are active year-round.
The onset of breeding varies between populations and within populations from year to year. The eastern cottontail breeding season begins later with higher latitudes and elevations. Temperature rather than diet has been suggested as a primary factor controlling onset of breeding; many studies correlate severe weather with delays in the onset of breeding. In New England breeding occurs from March to September. In New York the breeding season occurs from February to September, in Connecticut from mid-March to mid-September. In Alabama the breeding season begins in January. In Georgia the breeding season lasts 9 months and in Texas breeding occurs year-round. Populations in western Oregon breed from late January to early September. Mating is promiscuous.
The nest is a slanting hole dug in soft soil and lined with vegetation and fur. The average measurements are: length 18 cm (7.09 in), width 12 cm (4.9 in), and depth 12 cm (4.71 in). The average period of gestation is 28 days, ranging from 25 to 35 days. Eastern cottontail young are born with a very fine coat of hair and are blind. Their eyes begin to open by 4 to 7 days. Young begin to move out of the nest for short trips by 12 to 16 days and are completely weaned and independent by 4 to 5 weeks. Litters disperse at about 7 weeks. Females do not stay in the nest with the young but return to the opening of the nest to nurse, usually twice a day.
Reproductive maturity occurs at about 2 to 3 months of age. A majority of females first breed the spring following birth; but 10% to 36% of females breed as juveniles (i.e., summer of the year they were born). Males will mate with more than one female. Female rabbits can have 1 to 7 litters of 1 to 12 young, called kits, in a year; however, the average number of litters per year is 3–4 and the average number of kits is 5. In the South female eastern cottontails have more litters per year (up to 7) but fewer young per litter. In New England female eastern cottontails have three or four litters per year. The annual productivity of females may be as high as 35 young.
The diet of eastern cottontails is varied and largely dependent on availability. Eastern cottontails eat vegetation almost exclusively; arthropods have occasionally been found in pellets. Some studies list as many as 70 to 145 plant species in local diets. Food items include bark, twigs, leaves, fruit, buds, flowers, grass seeds, sedge fruits, and rush seeds. There is a preference for small material: branches, twigs, and stems up to 0.64 cm (0.25 in). Leporids including eastern cottontails are coprophagous, producing two types of fecal pellets, one of which is consumed. The redigestion of pellets greatly increases the nutritional value of dietary items.
In summer, eastern cottontails consume tender green herbaceous vegetation when it is available. In many areas Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratense) and Canada bluegrass (P. compressa) are important dietary components. Other favored species include clovers (Trifolium spp.) and crabgrasses (Digitaria spp.). In Connecticut important summer foods include clovers, alfalfa, timothy (Phleum pratense), bluegrasses (Poa spp.), quackgrass (Elytrigia repens), crabgrasses, redtop (Agrostis alba), ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya), goldenrods (Solidago spp.), plantains (Plantago spp.), chickweed (Stellaria media), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). Eastern cottontails also consume many domestic crops.
During the dormant season, or when green vegetation is covered with snow, eastern cottontails consume twigs, buds, and bark of woody vegetation. In Connecticut important winter foods include gray birch (Betula populifolia), red maple, and smooth sumac (Rhus glabra).
In Kansas the largest cause of mortality of radiotracked eastern cottontails was predation (43%), followed by research mortalities[clarification needed] (19%), and tularemia (18%). A major cause of eastern cottontail mortality is collision with automobiles. In Missouri it was estimated that 10 eastern cottontails are killed annually per mile of road. The peak period of highway mortality is in spring (March through May); roadside vegetation greens up before adjacent fields and is highly attractive to eastern cottontails.
Annual adult survival is estimated at 20%. Average longevity is 15 months in the wild; the longest lived wild individual on record was five years old. Captive eastern cottontails have lived to at least nine years of age.
Eastern cottontails are hosts to fleas, ticks, lice, cestodes, nematodes, trematodes, gray flesh fly larvae, botfly larvae, tularemia, shopes fibroma, torticollis, and streptothricosis cutaneous. Further summary of diseases and pests is available.
The Eastern Cottontail has to contend with many predators, both natural and introduced. Due to their often large populations in Eastern North America, they form a major component of several predators' diets. Major predators of eastern cottontail include domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), foxes (Vulpes and Urocyon spp.), coyote (C. latrans), bobcat (Lynx rufus), domestic cat (Felis catus), weasels (Mustela spp.), raccoon (Procyon lotor), mink (M. vison), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), barred owl (Strix varia), hawks (principally Buteo spp.), corvids (Corvus spp.), and snakes.
Predators that take nestlings include raccoon, badger (Taxidea taxus), skunks (Mephitis and Spilogale spp.), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). In central Missouri eastern cottontails comprised the majority of biomass in the diet of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) during the nesting season. In Pennsylvania the chief predator of eastern cottontails is the great horned owl. In the Southwest cottontails including eastern cottontail comprise 7 to 25% of the diets of northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). In Texas eastern cottontails are preyed on by coyotes more heavily in early spring and in fall than in summer or winter. In southwestern North Dakota cottontails (both eastern and desert cottontail Sylvilagus auduboni) were major prey items in the diets of bobcats.
Recognized subspecies of Sylvilagus floridanus
- North of Mexico
- Sylvilagus floridanus alacer
- Sylvilagus floridanus holzneri
- Sylvilagus floridanus chapmani
- Sylvilagus floridanus floridanus
- Sylvilagus floridanus mallurus
- Mexico and Central America
- Sylvilagus floridanus aztecus
- Sylvilagus floridanus connectens
- Sylvilagus floridanus hondurensis
- Sylvilagus floridanus macrocorpus
- Sylvilagus floridanus orizabae
- Sylvilagus floridanus yucatanicus
- South of Isthmus of Panama
- Sylvilagus floridanus avius
- Sylvilagus floridanus cumanicus
- Sylvilagus floridanus margaritae
- Sylvilagus floridanus nigronuchalis
- Sylvilagus floridanus orinoci
- Sylvilagus floridanus purgatus
- Sylvilagus floridanus superciliaris
- Hoffman, R.S.; Smith, A.T. (2005). "Order Lagomorpha". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 209–210. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Mexican Association for Conservation and Study of Lagomorphs (AMCELA), Romero Malpica, F.J. & Rangel Cordero, H. (2008). "Sylvilagus floridanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
- Godin, Alfred J. (1977). Wild mammals of New England. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press
- Reid, Fiona (2006). A Field Guide to Mammals of North America. New York, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
- Silvano, Fabrizio; Acquarone, Camilla; Cucco, Marco (2000). "Distribution of the eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus in the province of Alessandria" (PDF). Hystrix 11: 75–78.
- Hon, Tip. (1981). "Effects of prescribed fire on furbearers in the South", pp. 121–128 in: Wood, Gene W. (ed.) Prescribed fire and wildlife in southern forests: Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 April 6–8; Myrtle Beach, SC. Georgetown, SC: Clemson University, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute
- Allen, A. W. (1984). Habitat suitability index models: eastern cottontail. FWS/OBS 0197-6087. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Biological Sciences, Western Energy Land Use Team
- Trent, Tracey T.; Rongstad, Orrin J (1974). "Home range and survival of cottontail rabbits in southwestern Wisconsin". Journal of Wildlife Management 38 (3): 459–472. doi:10.2307/3800877. JSTOR 3800877.
- Chapman, Joseph A.; Hockman, J. Gregory; Edwards, William R. 1982. Cottontails: Sylvilagus floridanus and allies. In: Chapman, Joseph A.; Feldhamer, George A., eds. Wild mammals of North America. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press: 83–123
- Komarek, Roy. (1963). "Fire and the changing wildlife habitat", pp. 35–43 in: Proceedings of 2nd annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1963 March 14–15; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station
- Nowak, Ronald M.; Paradiso, John L. (1983). Walker's mammals of the world. 4th edition. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press
- GAWW: Species Description. Naturalhistory.uga.edu. Retrieved 2012-12-20.
- Mikita, K. (1999). Sylvilagus floridanus. Animal Diversity Web.
- Elder, William H.; Lyle K. Sowls (1942). "Body Weight and Sex Ratio of Cottontail Rabbits". The Journal of Wildlife Management 6 (3): 203–207. doi:10.2307/3795902. JSTOR 3795902.
- Eastern Cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus). Nsrl.ttu.edu. Retrieved 2012-12-20.
- "FLMNH Mammal Master Database- Sylvilagus flordianus". Florida Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2014-01-22.
- Craighead, J.J. & Craighead, F.C. Hawks, Owls and Wildlife. Wildlife Management Institute (1956), ISBN 0-486-22123-7.
- Merritt, Joseph E. (1987) Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania, University of Pittsburgh Press, p. 123, ISBN 0822953935.
- Chapman, Joseph A.; Hockman, J. Gregory; Ojeda C., Magaly M (1980). "Sylvilagus floridanus" (PDF). Mammalian Species 136 (136): 1–8. doi:10.2307/3504055. JSTOR 3504055.
- Wainright, Larry C. (1969). "A literature review on cottontail reproduction". Special Report 19. Denver, CO: Colorado Department of Game, Fish and Parks
- Rue, Leonard Lee, III. 1965. Cottontail. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company
- Dalke, Paul D.; Sime, Palmer R (1941). "Food habits of the eastern and New England cottontails". Journal of Wildlife Management 5 (2): 216–228. doi:10.2307/3795589. JSTOR 3795589.
- Trevor, John T.; Seabloom, Robert W.; Allen, Stephen H. (1989). "Food habits in relation to sex and age of bobcats from southwestern North Dakota". Prairie Naturalist 21 (3): 163–168.
- Hellgren, Eric C.; Vaughan, Michael R. (1988). "Seasonal food habits of black bears in Great Dismal Swamp, Virginia – North Carolina". Proceedings of the Annual Conference of Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. 42: 295–305
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sylvilagus floridanus.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Sylvilagus floridanus|
- Cotton Tail Rabbit, World Wide Outreach Program of The Rouge Foundation
- Eastern Cottontail, Fletcher Wildlife Garden