Nature Impressions: Riusuke Fukahori’s genius

This is easily the best thing I’ve found for this blog series so far.  This is why in my opinion:

1. It deals with fish (big plus in my book)

2. It is a novel medium (to me at least)

3. It is a beautiful balance of art and nature (prerequisite for sharing).

 

 

Fukahori’s work is a mind bending expression that attempts to capture nature’s unique moments.  What I see in this art is reminiscent of what one might experience when gazing into a stream along its bank, everything frozen in time.  He has mastered painting images into 3D blocks of resin, painting a layer, adding resin, painting a layer, adding resin, and so on.  The effect is stunningly realistic scenes of fish swimming in schools in small containers. Most of his paintings are of goldfish or carp. See our Asian Carp gyotaku, Common Carp, for an alternate version of an artistic impression of this fish. The artist’s website is here.

Images from Dominic’s pics on Flickr

Here’s a video of him in action; enjoy

Gafftopsail Catfish 2


Gafftopsail Catfish 2 by Inked Animal
Gafftopsail Catfish | Bagre marinus

 This Gyotaku deserves to be on a chinese restaurant’s wall.  Its very asian looking with the extremely falcate fins.  This animal was caught by either Adam or myself on a fishing trip to Matagorda Bay, one of our usual stomping grounds and sources for much of our saltwater material.  It is an interesting print, and misleading categorization, being that it doesn’t have scales.  Many catfish don’t have scales, but smooth skin which comes out in this print in an interesting way. Notice the wrinkles and paper creases.  Also, the long “swoop” from its chin back is the very long barbel that is covered in essentially taste buds.  Its what this animal uses to sense food.  If you like cats, make sure you check out Gafftop Catfish, Hardhead Catfish, and Hardhead Catfish – head.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Gafftopsail Catfish info via wikipedia:

Gafftopsail catfish
Bagre marinus (line art).jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Siluriformes
Family: Ariidae
Genus: Bagre
Species: B. marinus
Binomial name
Bagre marinus
(Mitchill, 1815)
Synonyms[2]
  • Silurus marinus Mitchill, 1815
  • Felichthys marinus (Mitchill, 1815)
  • Galeichthys blochii Valenciennes, 1840
  • Galeichthys parrae Valenciennes, 1840
  • Galeichthys bahiensis Castelnau, 1855
  • Aelurichthys longispinis Günther, 1864

The gafftopsail catfish, Bagre marinus, is found in the waters of the western central Atlantic Ocean, as well as the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. It has long venomous spines which can cause painful wounds. It feeds on crustaceans and other fish. The male of the species fertilizes the eggs of the female, and broods them in his mouth until they hatch. The gafftopsail feeds throughout the water column. This fish is a common catch in the Southeastern US, although it may be found as far north as New York. In fishing, they are considered strong fighters. They are taken from piers, jetties, reefs, and the surf, as well as bottom fishing or flats fishing. They are caught with lures, cut bait, and shrimp, as well as soft plastics. Some fishermen use traps for catfish, which is regulated by some states.

Distribution

It lives on the Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico coastlines from Cape Cod to Brazil.[1] It is also found in brackish waters, including estuaries, lagoons, brackish seas, and mangroves. It is generally common to abundant in its range.[1]

Characteristics

The gafftopsail catfish is blue-grey to dark brown with a light grey belly. Its appearance is typical for a catfish except for the deeply forked tail and the venomous, serrated spines. It also has a little hump that looks somewhat like a wave. The typical length of a mature gafftopsail catfish is about 17 in (43 cm). The anal fin is a few inches anterior to the tail and is white or pale blue, with 22-28 rays on it and a high, anterior lobe.[3] The pelvic fin is 6–12 in (15–30 cm) anterior to the tail fin. The gafftopsail catfish has maxillary barbels and one pair of barbels on the chin. It resembles the hardhead catfish, but its dorsal spine has a distinctive fleshy extension (like the fore-and-aft topsail of a ship).

The primary food of juveniles is unidentifiable organic matter; the secondary food is fish, with smaller amounts from other trophic groups. Unlike many other catfish, which are primarily bottom feeders, the gafftopsail catfish feeds throughout the water column. It eats mostly crustaceans, including crabs, shrimp, and prawns (95% of the diet), but it will also eat worms, other invertebrates, and bony fishes (about 5% of the diet).[4] In addition to humans, predators of the gafftopsail catfish include the tiger shark and bull shark.

Gafftopsail catfish spawn over inshore mudflats during a relatively short time span (10 days) from May to August;[5] they are mouthbreeders. The eggs are about 1 in (2.5 cm) in diameter. Males keep up to 55 eggs in their mouths until they hatch. Young are about 5 cm (2 inches) long when they hatch, and the male may continue to brood them until they are up to 4 in (10 cm) long. The males do not feed while they are carrying the eggs or young.[6]

Fishing

The gafftopsail catfish is a common catch in the Southeastern United States, although it is also caught as far north as New York. They are taken from piers, jetties, reefs, and the surf, as well as bottom fishing or flats fishing. They are caught with lures such as plugs, spoons, spinners, cut bait, and shrimp, as well as soft plastic lure resembling shrimp, worms, and shad. They are attracted to the sound of struggling fish, like a popping cork creates. Catfish trapping is also used to capture them, but is regulated in some states. Catfish traps include “slat traps,” long wooden traps with an angled entrance, and wire hoop traps. Typical bait for these traps includes rotten cheese and dog food.

Gafftopsail catfish are good eating; the red lateral line should be removed to prevent “muddy taste”; however in Gafftopsail taken from southern Florida mangrove estuaries, this is seemingly unnecessary. The pectoral fins and dorsal fin contain venomous spines; care should be used when handling this fish.

Weight and length

Growth chart

The largest recorded weight for a gafftopsail catfish is 4.5 kg (9.9 lb)[7] and 69 cm (27 in) in length.[8] A more common weight and length of gafftopsails caught is 1–2 lb (450–910 g) and 12–16 in (30–41 cm).

As gafftopsail catfish grow longer, they increase in weight, but the relationship is not linear. The relationship between total length (L, in inches) and total weight (W, in pounds) for nearly all species of fish can be expressed by an equation of the form:

W = c L b {\displaystyle W=cL^{b}\!\,} W=cL^{b}\!\,

Invariably, b is close to 3.0 for all species, and the constant ct varies between species.[9] Data from the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission indicate, for the gafftopsail catfish, c = 0.000493 and b = 3.075[10] The relationship described in this section suggests a 12-inch gafftopsail catfish will weigh about one pound, while a 20-inch fish will likely weigh about five pounds.

References

  1. ^ a b c Chao, L., Vega-Cendejas, M., Tolan, J., Jelks, H. & Espinosa-Perez, H. (2015). "Bagre marinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 18 February 2017. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ "Synonyms of Bagre marinus (Mitchill, 1815)". Fishbase.org. Retrieved 29 July 2017. 
  3. ^ Smith, C. Lavett. National Audubon Society Field Guide to Tropical Marine Fishes of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. Chanticleer Press, 1997, ISBN 0-679-44601-X, pp. 85 & 346
  4. ^ FishBase.org: Food and Feeding Habits Summary - Bagre Marinus see online accessed 11 March 2010
  5. ^ Muncy R.J., Wingo W.M.,Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico): Sea Catfish and Gafftopsail Catfish read online p. 4
  6. ^ Smith, pp. 85 & 346
  7. ^ IGFA 2007 Database of IGFA angling records. IGFA, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, USA http://www.igfa.org/Records/Fish-Records.aspx?Fish=Catfish, gafftopsail&LC=ATR
  8. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2017). "Bagre marinus" in FishBase. February 2017 version.
  9. ^ R. O. Anderson and R. M. Neumann, Length, Weight, and Associated Structural Indices, in Fisheries Techniques, second edition, B.E. Murphy and D.W. Willis, eds., American Fisheries Society, 1996.
  10. ^ average of data for male and female gafftopsail catfish at Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Report 2008 accessed 7 March 2010
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gafftopsail_catfish

Jack Crevalle – 1


Jack Crevalle | Caranx hippos


 

Jack Crevalle info via Wikipedia:

Crevalle jack
Jack crevalle - Oleta River State Park.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Carangidae
Genus: Caranx
Species: C. hippos
Binomial name
Caranx hippos
(Linnaeus, 1766)
Caranx hippos distribution.png
Approximate range of the crevalle jack
Synonyms
  • Scomber hippos Linnaeus, 1766
  • Carangus hippos (Linnaeus, 1766)
  • Scomber carangus Bloch, 1793
  • Caranx carangus (Bloch, 1793)
  • Caranx carangua Lacepède, 1801
  • Caranx erythrurus Lacepède, 1801
  • Caranx antilliarum Bennett, 1840
  • Caranx defensor DeKay, 1842
  • Trachurus cordyla Gronow, 1854
  • Carangus esculentus Girard, 1859
  • Caranx esculentus (Girard, 1859)
  • Caranx hippos hippos (Linnaeus, 1766)
  • Caranx hippos tropicus Nichols, 1920

The crevalle jack, Caranx hippos (also known as the common jack, black-tailed trevally, couvalli jack, black cavalli, jack crevale and yellow cavalli) is a common species of large marine fish classified within the jack family, Carangidae. The crevalle jack is distributed across the tropical and temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean, ranging from Nova Scotia, Canada to Uruguay in the west Atlantic and Portugal to Angola in the east Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea. It is distinguishable from similar species by its deep body, fin colouration and a host of more detailed anatomical features, including fin ray and lateral line scale counts. It is one of the largest fish in the genus Caranx, growing to a maximum known length of 124 cm and a weight of 32 kg, although is rare at lengths greater than 60 cm. The crevalle jack inhabits both inshore and offshore waters to depths of around 350 m, predominantly over reefs, bays, lagoons and occasionally estuaries. Young fish dispersed north by currents in the eastern Atlantic are known to migrate back to more tropical waters before the onset of winter; however, if the fish fail to migrate, mass mortalities occur as the temperature falls below the species' tolerance limits.

The crevalle jack is a powerful, predatory fish, with extensive studies showing the species consumes a variety of small fish, with invertebrates such as prawns, shrimps, crabs, molluscs and cephalopods also of minor importance. Dietary shifts with both age, location and season have been demonstrated, which led some researchers to postulate the species is indiscriminant in its feeding habits. The crevalle jack reaches maturity at 55 cm in males and 66 cm in females, with spawning taking place year round, although peaks in activity have been documented in several sites. The larval and juvenile growth has been extensively studied, with the oldest known individual 17 years of age. The crevalle jack is an important species to commercial fisheries throughout its range, with annual catches ranging between 1000 and 30 000 tonnes over its entire range. It is taken by a variety of netting methods, including purse nets, seines and gill nets, as well as hook-and-line methods. The crevalle jack is also a revered gamefish, taken both by lures and bait. The species is considered of good to poor quality table fare, and is sold fresh, frozen, or preserved, or as fishmeal or oil at market. The crevalle jack is closely related to both the Pacific crevalle jack and the longfin crevalle jack, the latter of which has been extensively confused with the true crevalle jack until recently.

Taxonomy and phylogeny

The crevalle jack is classified within the genus Caranx, one of a number of groups known as the jacks or trevallies. Caranx itself is part of the larger jack and horse mackerel family Carangidae, a group of percoid fishes in the order Perciformes.[1] The species belongs to what William Smith-Vaniz and Ken Carpenter refer to as the Caranx hippos complex, a group of closely related fishes which also includes Caranx caninus (Pacific crevalle jack) and Caranx fischeri (longfin crevalle jack).[2]

The crevalle jack was the first species of its genus to be scientifically described and named, and is also the type species of the genus Caranx. It was described and named in 1766 by the famed Swedish taxonomist Carl Linnaeus, based on the holotype specimen taken off the coast of the Carolinas, United States.[3] He named the species Scomber hippos, placing it in the mackerel genus Scomber, a practice which was common prior to 1801 when the carangids were not yet recognised as separate from the scombrids.[4] The specific epithet means "horse" in Latin, with Scomber hippos literally translating in English as "horse mackerel", which has become a common name for many species of carangid.[5] As the state of fish taxonomy progressed, the species was transferred to both Caranx and Carangus, with the name Caranx hippos now accepted. Bernard Germain de Lacépède was the first person to separate the crevalle jack from the mackerels, placing it in its own genus Caranx, although he had redescribed the fish as Caranx carangua, which became the type species of Caranx.[6] As well as Lacepede's renaming, the species has been independently redescribed a total of six times, with all of these names, including Lacepede's, categorised as invalid junior synonyms under ICZN rules.

There has been extensive discussion in the scientific literature regarding the possible conspecifity of the Pacific crevalle jack, Caranx caninus, with Caranx hippos.[2] Arguments ranged from the species being conspecific, subspecific or as individual species. This led to the creation of two trinomial names; Caranx hippos hippos and Caranx hippos tropicus. The former was an attempt to separate the 'subspecies' on each side of the Americas,[7] while the latter was an unnecessary name to divide the Atlantic Caranx hippos into subspecies.[8] The most recent review of the species complex by Smith-Vaniz and Carpenter treated the fish as separate species, citing differences in the development of hyperostosis and differing anal fin colours as evidence of species status.[2] The species' most often used common name, crevalle jack (or 'jack crevalle') is based on the word "cavalla", an earlier word used for the jacks. Other names include common jack, black-tailed trevally, couvalli jack, black cavalli, yellow cavalli and a host of generic names, such as horse mackerel and crevalle.[5]

Description

Several crevalle jacks over a reef in Florida

The crevalle jack is one of the largest members of Caranx, growing to a known maximum length of 125 cm and a weight of 32 kg,[5] although it is generally uncommon at lengths greater than 65 cm.[9] Unverified reports of fish over 150 cm may also be attributable to this species.[10] The crevalle jack is morphologically similar to a number of other deep-bodied carangids, having an elongate, moderately compressed body with the dorsal profile more convex than the ventral profile, particularly anteriorly.[10] The eye is covered by a well-developed adipose eyelid, and the posterior extremity of the jaw is vertically under or past the posterior margin of the eye.[10] The dorsal fin is in two parts, the first consisting of eight spines and the second of one spine followed by 19 to 21 soft rays. The anal fin consists of two anteriorly detached spines followed by one spine and 16 or 17 soft rays.[9] The pelvic fins contain one spine and five soft rays, while the pectoral fins contain 20 or 21 soft rays. The caudal fin is strongly forked, and the pectoral fins are falcate, being longer than the length of the head.[11] The lateral line has a pronounced and moderately long anterior arch, with the curved section intersecting the straight section midway below the second dorsal fin. The straight section contains 23 to 35 very strong scutes, with bilateral keels present on the caudal peduncle. The chest is devoid of scales with the exception of a small patch of scales in front of the pelvic fins.[9] The upper jaw contains a series of strong outer canines with an inner band of smaller teeth, while the lower jaw contains a single row of teeth.[10] The species has 35 to 42 gill rakers in total and 25 vertebrae are present.[11]

In 1972, a crevalle jack caught by fishermen off South Carolina displayed swollen, bulbous mandibles. These swellings were initially thought to be due to a copepod parasite, however radiographs and subsequent sectioning found them to be bony in nature. The cause of this calcified connective tissue is still unknown, and there remains only a single reported case of such an ailment in crevalle jack.[12]

The crevalle jack's colour ranges from brassy green to blue or bluish-black dorsally, becoming silvery white or golden ventrally. A dark spot is present on the pectoral fin, with a similar dark to dusky spot present on the upper margin of the operculum. Juveniles have around five dark vertical bands on their sides, with these fading at adulthood.[13] The first dorsal fin, pectoral and pelvic fins range from white to dusky, occasionally with golden tinges throughout. The anal fin lobe is bright yellow, with the remainder of the fin ranging from golden to dusky, while the underside of the caudal peduncle often being yellow in adults. The caudal fin itself is also golden to dusky, with the lower lobe often brighter yellow than the upper, with both the lobes often having a black trailing edge.[11][13]

Distribution

The crevalle jack inhabits the tropical and temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean, ranging extensively along both the eastern American coastline and the western African and European coastlines.[5] In the western Atlantic, the southernmost record comes from Uruguay, with the species ranging north along the Central American coastline, and throughout the Caribbean and many of the numerous archipelagos within. The species is found throughout the Greater Antilles, however it is absent from the leeward Lesser Antilles, with its distribution being patchy throughout other Caribbean archipelagos.[10] From the Gulf of Mexico, its distribution extends north along the U.S. coast and as far north as Nova Scotia in Canada, also taking in several northwest Atlantic islands. The crevalle jack is also known from Saint Helena Island in the southern Atlantic Ocean.[14]

In the eastern Atlantic, the southernmost record comes from Angola, with the species distributed north along the west African coastline up to West Sahara and Morocco, with its distribution also including much of the Mediterranean Sea.[5] In the Mediterranean, its range extends as far east as Libya in the south and Turkey in the north, and includes most of the northern Mediterranean, including Greece, Italy and Spain. The species' northernmost record in the eastern Atlantic comes from Portugal, with the species also known to inhabit many of the northeastern Atlantic islands, including Cape Verde, Madeira Island, and the Canary Islands.[9]

Many older publications list the species range as from the eastern Pacific, which now is known to represent the Pacific crevalle jack and is considered a distinct species. There are also often mentions of the species erroneously having circumtropical and Indian Ocean distributions, with these records probably attributable to similar Indo-Pacific species, namely the blacktip trevally and giant trevally.[2] The species distribution overlaps that of the similar longfin crevalle jack in the eastern Atlantic, with careful identification needed to distinguish the two.[2] Within the Atlantic, confusion with both longfin crevalle jack and horse-eye jack, Caranx latus, have also led to erroneous records being made, with Smith-Vaniz and Carpenter suggesting this occurred in the Mediterranean, and the species may actually be absent from waters north of Mauritania.[2]

Habitat

Crevalle jacks swimming in the Georgia Aquarium

The crevalle jack lives in both inshore and offshore habitats, with larger adults preferring deeper waters than juveniles. In the inshore environment, crevalle jack inhabit shallow flats, sandy bays,[15]beaches, seagrass beds, shallow reef complexes[5] and lagoons. The species is also known to enter brackish waters, with some individuals known to penetrate far upstream; however, like most euryhaline species, they generally do not penetrate very far upriver.[16] The water salinities where the species has been reported from range from 0% to 49%, indicating the species can adapt to a wide range of waters.[17] Studies in West Africa found marked differences in the sex ratios of populations in brackish waters, with females very rarely seen in such environments once they are mature.[17] Research in the coastal waters of Ghana suggests the availability of food is the primary control on the species distribution in inshore waters.[18]

Adults that move offshore generally do not leave continental shelf waters, however still penetrate to depths of 350 m,[9] and possibly deeper. These individuals live on the outer shelf edges, sill reefs and upper slopes of the deep reef, and tend to be more solitary than juveniles.[19] Adults have also been sighted around the large oil rig platforms throughout the Gulf of Mexico, where they use the man-made structure like a reef to hunt prey.[20] The larvae and young juveniles of the species live pelagically offshore along the continental shelf and slope, and are also known to congregate around oil platforms, as well as natural floating debris such as sargassum mats.[21]

Biology and ecology

The crevalle jack is one of the most abundant large carangids in the Atlantic Ocean, with at least two systematic studies placing it within the top five most abundant species of that region, namely lagoons in Nigeria and Chiapas, Mexico.[22] Seasonal movements are known from both the American and African coastlines, with both juveniles and adults appearing to migrate. In North America, young individuals recruited to northern estuaries are known to move to warmer tropical waters at the onset of winter to escape possible hypothermia.[23] At least one hypothermia-driven mass mortality of 200 crevalle jacks has been reported from the Slocum River in Massachusetts, indicating low-temperature mortality is a major concern for north-ranging groups of the species, with temperatures below 9.0 °C apparently being lethal to the fish.[24] This applies not only to river dwelling fish, but also to marine migrants which linger too long in the temperate regions during winter.[24] In Nigeria, and presumably other parts of Africa, the species appears to migrate seasonally, possibly to take advantage of prey, with the fish arriving in Nigeria during September to November. The species is more active during the day than the night, with larger catches in fisheries taken during the day, also. The crevalle jack is a schooling species for most of its life, forming moderately large to very large, fast-moving schools.[11] At larger sizes, the fish become more solitary and move to the deeper offshore reefs. Evidence from laboratory studies indicates crevalle jack are able to coordinate their feeding and spawning aggregations over coral reefs based on the release of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) from the reef. DMSP is a naturally occurring chemical produced by marine algae and, to a lesser extent, corals and their symbiotic zooxanthellae. Field studies have also shown the species increases in abundance with increased levels of DMSP over coral reefs.[25]

Diet and feeding

The crevalle jack is a powerful predatory fish which predominantly takes other small fishes as prey at all stages of its life, with various invertebrates generally being of secondary importance to its diet.[10] Several studies conducted on the species' diet over its range have found other aspects of its diet vary widely, including the specific types of prey the species takes and the change in diet with age. The most detailed of these studies was conducted in the Southern USA, which showed the species diet comprised between 74% and 94% fish.[26] The remainder of the diet was various prawns, shrimps, crabs, molluscs and stomatopods. The types of fish taken varied throughout the range, with members of Clupeidae, Sparidae, Carangidae and Trichiuridae all taken in variable amounts, usually with members of one family dominating the local diet.[26] The percentage of various invertebrates also was highly variable, with penaeid shrimps, portunid crabs, stomatopods and squid being of importance to different populations. The study also indicated young crevalle jack predominantly take clupeids, adding sparids and later carangids to their diets as they grow larger.[26] The larger individuals also took much higher amounts of invertebrates, and also small quantities of seagrass, indicating larger fish are more opportunistic.[26] This general change in diet with age also seems spatially variable, with young crevalle jack in both Maryland and Puerto Rica consuming almost exclusively crustaceans, including shrimps, crabs (and juvenile tarpon) in Maryland[27] and harpacticoid copepods in Puerto Rico before moving to fish-dominated diets later in life.[19] Research in Ghana shows a pattern somewhat intermediate to the previous two locations; adults take larger fish, predominantly Engraulis guineensis and Sardinella eba, while juvenile fish take smaller fishes such as Epiplatys sexfasciatus or juvenile caridian and penaeid shrimps.[18]

The widely variable diet of the species throughout its life stages led authors in the 1950s and 1960s to conclude the species was indiscriminate in its feeding habits, eating whatever was locally available.[28][29] The diets of the populations in both the southern USA and Ghana also varied quite markedly by season and year, which led the authors of both these studies to agree with these earlier conclusions.[26] Recent laboratory studies, however, have shown the species may have preferences for certain sizes of prey. In these experiments, the fish were presented with a range of size classes of the same prey species, Menidia beryllina, with the results showing they prefer to take the smallest size class possible, which contrasts with more aggressive predators, such as bluefish.[30] Both adults and juveniles feed throughout the day, generally becoming inactive at night.[18] During some feeding periods recorded in Ghana, digestion in the species was so rapid that food becomes unidentifiable within four to five hours of consumption.[18] The crevalle jack is also an important prey species itself, taken by larger fish, such as billfish and sharks, as well as seabirds.[5] As well as being preyed on during its adult stage, the spawn of the crevalle jack is known to be eaten by planktivorous organisms, including whale sharks in the Caribbean.[31]

Life history

A school of crevalle jack swarming around a Caribbean reef shark

The crevalle jack reaches sexual maturity at different lengths in males and females, with estimates suggesting males reach maturity at 55 cm and four to five years of age, and females at 66 cm and five to six years of age.[19] Reproduction is thought to occur year round in most areas, although there are peaks in activity. South of Florida, this period is between March and September,[32] in Cuba it is April and May,[5] while in Jamaica no definitive peak has yet been identified.[19] The species also has a protracted spawning in Ghana, although a peak in activity occurs between October and January. Juveniles are also present in lagoons year round in this location, indicating year round spawning and recruitment.[18] The place of spawning also appears to be variable, with the act occurring offshore south of Florida,[32] while in Colombia and Belize, they have been observed spawning over inshore reefs and bays.[33] Large aggregations of crevalle jack form prior to spawning, with these schools containing upward of 1000 individuals. Pairs break off from the school to spawn, with one individual turning a much darker color during this exchange. Once spawning has occurred, the pair rejoins the main school.[33]Fecundity in the species has been estimated as up to one million eggs, with these being pelagic, and spherical in shape. They have a diameter of 0.7 to 0.9 mm, and contain a pigmented yolk and one yellow oil globule with dark pigments.[19] The larvae have been extensively described in the scientific literature, although the sequence of fin formation is still not well known. Defining features of the larval crevalle jack include a relatively deep body, heavily pigmented head and body, and more detailed meristic characteristics, with flexion occurring at 4 to 5 mm in length.[32]

Otolith and vertebrae studies have proved useful in determining the age and thus growth patterns of the species, with other methods including scale and fin ray sectioning having lesser value.[34] The species otoliths have been the subject of detailed X-ray diffraction studies, which have indicated biomineralisation of the otoliths occurs predominantly in the aragonite phase.[35] Females grow faster than males, reaching 266.5 mm after their first year of life, 364.4 after their second, 370.9 mm after the third and 546.7 after their fifth. A female of 676.6 mm was 9 years old.[36] Males reach 252.4 mm in their first year, 336.2 mm in their second, 363.8 in the third and 510.3 in their fifth. A male of 554 mm was eight years old.[36] The oldest studied individual was a 934-mm individual of unspecified sex, which was 17 years old.[34] The larvae are pelagic and are found over continental shelf waters and occasionally in the oceanic zone proximal to the continental slope. They are present all year round in the Gulf of Mexico, with a peak in abundance during the summer months due to spawning peaks.[37] While the young juveniles live in the exposed pelagic environment, they use a behaviour called 'piloting' to swim in very close proximity to both larger animals and floating objects, such as sargassum mats, buoys and even boats.[38] By the time juveniles make their way to shore, they may have been dispersed large distances from their initial spawning grounds and may face the challenge of migration to warmer climates during winter if they are to survive as outlined previously.[23] Juveniles use estuaries and seagrass beds as their main nursery habitats.[38]

Relationship to humans

The crevalle jack is a highly important species to commercial fisheries throughout its range, with the greatest quantity of the species taken from the eastern Atlantic.[39] In some fisheries, it is one of the most abundant species and therefore of great importance in these regions. In the Americas, the reported annual catch has ranged between 150 and 1300 tonnes since 1950, with catches since 2000 ranging between 190 and 380 tonnes.[39] Most of the western Atlantic catch is from Florida,[2] although Caribbean fisheries, such as Trinidad, take considerable quantities of the fish.[36] The eastern Atlantic catch statistics do not differentiate longfin crevalle jack from crevalle jack, thus must be considered a composite dataset. This region only comprises catch data from Angola, Ghana, São Tome, and Principe. These catches are much larger than in the east, with hauls of between 1000 and 38 000 tonnes per year recorded since 1950, although catches since 2000 only range between 1900 and 10 200 tonnes.[39] Crevalle jack is taken by a number of fishing methods, including haul seines, gill nets, purse seines, trawls, handlines and trolling lines.[10] The abundance of the species in Trinidad leads to the fish being taken in several quite different types of fishery; demersal trawls, artisanal gill nets and even beach seines, which illustrates the species' importance. In Trinidad, recreational fishermen also may sell their catch, which adds to the overall quantity of fish sold.[40] Crevalle jack is sold at market fresh, frozen, salted, and smoked, and as fishmeal and oil.[9]

The crevalle jack is a popular and highly regarded gamefish throughout its range, with the recreational catch of the species often exceeding commercial catches. The only amateur catch data available are from the US, which has an annual catch of around 400 to 1000 tonnes per year.[2] In Trinidad, the species is the basis for several fishing tournaments.[36] Crevalle jack are targeted from boats, as well as from piers and rockwalls by land based anglers.[41] Fishermen often target regions where depth suddenly changes, such as channels, holes, reefs or ledges, with strong currents and eddies favourable.[42] The fish take both live and cut baits, as well as a variety of artificial lures; however, when the fish are in feeding mode, they rarely refuse anything they are offered. Popular baits include both live fish, such as mullet and menhaden, as well as dead or strip baits consisting of fish, squid or prawns. Crevalle jack readily accept any style of lure, including hard-bodied spoons, jigs, plugs and poppers, as well as flies and soft rubber lures.[42] There is some evidence based on long term observations that the species favours yellow lures over all others.[42] Tackle is often kept quite light, but heavy monofilament leaders are employed to prevent the fish's teeth from abrading the line.[42] Crevalle jack are generally considered quite poor table fare, with selection of younger fish and bleeding upon capture giving the best results. The flesh is very red and dark due to the red muscle of the fish, which makes it somewhat coarse and poor tasting.[9] When pulled from the water, this fish snorts in what many people describe as "a pig-like" fashion. The crevalle jack has been implicated in several cases of ciguatera poisoning, although appears less likely to be a carrier than the horse-eye jack.[43]

References

  1. ^ "Caranx hippos". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 29 May 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; K.E. Carpenter (2007). "Review of the crevalle jacks, Caranx hippos complex (Teleostei: Carangidae), with a description of a new species from West Africa" (PDF). Fisheries Bulletin. 105 (4): 207–233. Retrieved 2009-04-07. 
  3. ^ California Academy of Sciences: Ichthyology (May 2009). "Caranx hippos". Catalog of Fishes. CAS. Retrieved 2009-05-31. 
  4. ^ Cuvier, G.; A. Valenciennes (1849). Histoire naturelle des poissons. F.G. Levrault. pp. IX, 93. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2009). "Caranx hippos" in FishBase. May 2009 version.
  6. ^ Lacepède, B.G.E. (1801). Histoire naturelle des poissons. 3: i-xvi. Paris: Plassan. pp. 1–558. 
  7. ^ Nichols, J.T. (1937). "On Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) from Ecuador". Copeia. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. 1937 (1): 58–59. ISSN 0045-8511. JSTOR 1437371. doi:10.2307/1437371. 
  8. ^ Nichols, J.T. (1920). "On the range and geographic variation of Caranx hippos". Copeia. 83: 44–45. ISSN 0045-8511. doi:10.2307/1437199. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Fischer, W; Bianchi, G.; Scott, W.B. (1981). FAO Species Identification Sheets for Fishery Purposes: Eastern Central Atlantic Vol 1. Ottawa: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Carpenter, K.E. (ed.) (2002). The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals (PDF). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 5. Rome: FAO. p. 1438. ISBN 92-5-104827-4. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  11. ^ a b c d McEachran, J.D.; J.D. Fechhelm (2005). Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico: Scorpaeniformes to tetraodontiformes. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. p. 1014. ISBN 978-0-292-70634-7. 
  12. ^ Schwartz, F.J. (1975). "A Crevalle Jack, Caranx hippos (Pisces, Carangidae), with a Mandibular Calcified Connective Tissue Fibroma". Chesapeake Science. Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation. 16 (1): 72–73. JSTOR 1351089. doi:10.2307/1351089. 
  13. ^ a b Wiseman, C. (1996). Guide to Marine Life: Caribbean, Bahamas, Florida. Miami: Aqua Quest Publications, Inc. p. 284. ISBN 978-1-881652-06-9. 
  14. ^ Edwards, A.J.; C.W. Glass (1987). "The Fishes of Saint Helena Island, Southern Atlantic Ocean. 2: The Pelagic Fishes". Journal of Natural History. 21 (6): 1367–1394. ISSN 0022-2933. doi:10.1080/00222938700770871. 
  15. ^ Ospina-Arango, J.F.; F.I. Pardo-Rodríguez; R. Álvarez-León (2008). "Gonadal maturity of the fish in the Cartagena Bay, Colombian Caribbean" (PDF). Boletin Cientifico Museo de Historia Natural Universidad de Caldas. 12 (9): 117–140. ISSN 0123-3068. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2009-05-31. 
  16. ^ Loftus, W.S.; J.A. Kushlan (1987). "Freshwater Fishes of Southern Florida USA". Bulletin of the Florida State Museum Biological Sciences. 31 (4): 147–344. ISSN 0071-6154. 
  17. ^ a b Panfili, J.; D. Thior; J.-M. Ecoutin; P. Ndiaye; J.-J. Albaret (2006). "Influence of salinity on the size at maturity for fish species reproducing in contrasting West African estuaries". Journal of Fish Biology. 69 (1): 95–113. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2006.01069.x. 
  18. ^ a b c d e Kwei, E.A. (1978). "Food and spawning activity of Caranx hippos (L.) off the coast of Ghana". Journal of Natural History. 12 (2): 195–215. ISSN 0022-2933. doi:10.1080/00222937800770081. 
  19. ^ a b c d e Munro, J. L. (1983) [1974]. "The Biology, Ecology and Bionomics of the Jacks, Carangidae". Caribbean Coral Reef Fishery Resources (A second edition of The biology, ecology, exploitation, and management of Caribbean reef fishes : scientific report of the ODA/UWI Fisheries Ecology Research Project, 1969-1973, University of the West Indies, Jamaica.). Manila: International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management. pp. 82–94. ISBN 971-10-2201-X. 
  20. ^ McGinnis, M.V.; L. Fernandez; C. Pomery (2001). "The Politics, Economics, and Ecology of Decommissioning Offshore Oil and Gas Structures" (PDF). MMS OCS Study 2001-006. Coastal Research Center, Marine Science Institute, University of California: 107. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  21. ^ Lindquist, D.C.; R.F. Shaw; F.J. Hernandez (2005). "Distribution patterns of larval and juvenile fishes at offshore petroleum platforms in the north-central Gulf of Mexico". Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 62 (4): 655–665. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2004.10.001. 
  22. ^ Diaz-Ruiz, S.; A. Aguirre-Leon; E. Cano-Quiroga (2006). "Ecological evaluation of fish community in two lagoon-estuarine systems of the south of Chiapas, Mexico". Hidrobiologica (in Spanish). 16 (2): 197–210. ISSN 0188-8897. 
  23. ^ a b McBride, R.S.; K.A. McKown (2000). "Consequences of dispersal of subtropically spawned crevalle jacks, Caranx hippos, to temperate estuaries" (PDF). Fishery Bulletin. 98 (3): 528–538. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  24. ^ a b Hoff, J.G. (1971). "Mass Mortality of the Crevalle Jack, Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) on the Atlantic Coast of Massachusetts". Chesapeake Science. Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation. 12 (1): 49. JSTOR 1350504. doi:10.2307/1350504. 
  25. ^ Debose, J.L.; G.A. Nevitt; A.H. Dittman (2006). "Evidence for DMSP as a Chemosensory Stimulant for Pelagic Jacks (Abs.)". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 46 (Suppl. 1): E187–E187. ISSN 1540-7063. doi:10.1093/icb/icl057. 
  26. ^ a b c d e Saloman, C.H.; S.P. Naughton (1984). "Food of crevalle jack (Caranx hippos) from Florida, Louisiana, and Texas". NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFC-134: 1–37. ISSN 0093-4917. 
  27. ^ Taylor, M.; R.J. Mansueti (1960). "Sounds Produced by Very Young Crevalle Jack, Caranx hippos, from the Maryland Seaside". Chesapeake Science. Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation. 1 (2): 115–116. JSTOR 1350930. doi:10.2307/1350930. 
  28. ^ Cadenat, J.A. (1954). "Note d' Ichthyologie Ouest-africaine VII Biologie, Regime alimentaire Carangidae". Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (Series A). 16 (21): 565–583. ISSN 0850-4997. 
  29. ^ Zai, M. (1965). "Biological investigation of fisheries resources". FAO, EPTA Report No. 2001. Ghana Government. 
  30. ^ Gleason, T.R.; D.A. Bengston (1996). "Growth, survival and size-selective predation mortality of larval and juvenile inland silversides, Menidia beryllina (Pisces; Atherinidae)". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 199 (2): 165–177. ISSN 0022-0981. doi:10.1016/0022-0981(95)00194-8. 
  31. ^ Hoffmayer, E.R.; J.S. Franks; W.B. Driggers; K.J. Oswald; J.M. Quattro (2007). "Observations of a feeding aggregation of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the North Central Gulf of Mexico". Gulf and Caribbean Research. 19 (2): 69–73. ISSN 1528-0470. 
  32. ^ a b c Richards, William J. (2006). Early Stages of Atlantic Fishes: An Identification Guide for the Western Central North Atlantic. CRC Press. pp. 2640 pp. ISBN 978-0-8493-1916-7. 
  33. ^ a b Graham, Rachel T.; Daniel W. Castellanos (2005). "Courtship and spawning behaviors of carangid species in Belize" (PDF). Fishery Bulletin. 103 (2): 426–432. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  34. ^ a b Palko, B.J. (1984). "An evaluation of hard parts for age determination of pompano (Trachinotus carolinus), ladyfish (Elops saurus), crevalle jack (Caranx hippos), gulf flounder (Paralichthys albigutta), and southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma)". NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFC-132: 1–16. 
  35. ^ Pattanaik, S. (2005). "X-ray diffraction, XAFS and scanning electron microscopy study of otolith of a crevalle jack fish (Caranx hippos)". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B. 229 (3-4): 367–374. ISSN 0168-583X. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2004.12.133. 
  36. ^ a b c d Kishore, R.; F. Solomon (2005). "Age and Growth Studies of Caranx hippos (crevalle jack) from Trinidad Using Hard-Parts". 56 Proceedings of the Fifty Six Annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute. 56: 227–239. 
  37. ^ Flores-Coto, C.; M. Sanchez-Ramirez (1989). "Larval Distribution and Abundance of Carangidae (Pisces) from the Southern Gulf of Mexico 1983-1984". Gulf Research Reports. 8 (2): 117–128. ISSN 0072-9027. 
  38. ^ a b Wiggers, S. (2005). "Crevalle Jack, Caranx hippos" (PDF). Species Description. South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. pp. 1–4. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  39. ^ a b c Fisheries and Agricultural Organisation. "Global Production Statistics 1950-2007". Crevalle jack. FAO. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  40. ^ Mike, A.; Cowx, I.G. (1996). "A preliminary appraisal of the contribution of recreational fishing to the fisheries sector in north-west Trinidad". Fisheries Management and Ecology. 3 (3): 219–228. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2400.1996.tb00149.x. 
  41. ^ Goldstein, R.J. (2000). Coastal fishing in the Carolinas: from surf, pier, and jetty. John F. Blair. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-89587-195-4. 
  42. ^ a b c d McNally, B. (2001). Gibson, B, ed. Inshore Salt Water Fishing: Learn from the Experts at Salt Water Magazine. Rockport Publishers. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-0-86573-132-5. 
  43. ^ Doorenbos, N.J.; Granade, H.R.; Cheng, P.C.; Morgan, J.M. (1977). "Ciguatera Fish Poison Studies in the Caribbean" (PDF). Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium Technical Report. MASGP-77-023: 1–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-11-16. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_crevalle

 

Common Carp

 

 Common Carp | Cyprinus carpio



Common Carp info via Wikipedia:

Common carp
Cyprinus carpio.jpeg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae
Genus: Cyprinus
Species: C. carpio
Binomial name
Cyprinus carpio
Linnaeus, 1758

The common carp or European carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish of eutrophic waters in lakes and large rivers in Europe and Asia.[2][3] The native wild populations are considered vulnerable to extinction by the IUCN,[1] but the species has also been domesticated and introduced into environments worldwide, and is often considered a destructive invasive species,[2] being included in the list of the world's 100 worst invasive species. It gives its name to the carp family Cyprinidae.

Taxonomy

Common carp by Alexander Francis Lydon.

The two subspecies are:

A third subspecies, C. c. haematopterus (Amur carp) native to eastern Asia, was recognized in the past,[4] but recent authorities treat it as a separate species under the name C. rubrofuscus.[1][5] The common carp and various Asian relatives in the pure forms can be separated by meristics and also differ in genetics, but they are able to interbreed.[1][6] Common carp can also interbreed with the common goldfish (Carassius auratus).[7][8]

History

The common carp is native to Europe and Asia, and has been introduced to every part of the world except the poles. They are the third most frequently introduced species worldwide[citation needed], and their history as a farmed fish dates back to Roman times[citation needed]. Carp are used as food in many areas, but are now also regarded as a pest in some regions due to their ability to out-compete native fish stocks.[9] The original common carp was found in the inland delta of the Danube River about 2000 years ago, and was torpedo-shaped and golden-yellow in colour. It had two pairs of barbels and a mesh-like scale pattern. Although this fish was initially kept as an exploited captive, it was later maintained in large, specially built ponds by the Romans in south-central Europe (verified by the discovery of common carp remains in excavated settlements in the Danube delta area). As aquaculture became a profitable branch of agriculture, efforts were made to farm the animals, and the culture systems soon included spawning and growing ponds.[10] The common carp's native range also extends to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral Sea.

Both European and Asian subspecies have been domesticated.[4] In Europe, domestication of carp as food fish was spread by monks between the 13th and 16th centuries. The wild forms of carp had already reached the delta of the Rhine in the 12th century, probably with some human help.[11] Variants that have arisen with domestication include the mirror carp, with large, mirror-like scales (linear mirror – scaleless except for a row of large scales that run along the lateral line; originating in Germany), the leather carp (virtually unscaled except near dorsal fin), and the fully scaled carp. Koi carp (錦鯉 (nishikigoi) in Japanese, 鯉魚 (pinyin: lĭ yú) in Chinese) is a domesticated ornamental variety that originated in the Niigata region of Japan in the 1820s,[12] but its parent species are likely the East Asian carp, possibly C. rubrofuscus.[1][5]

Physiology

Dutch wild carp

Wild common carp are typically slimmer than domesticated forms, with body length about four times body height, red flesh, and a forward-protruding mouth. Common carp can grow to very large sizes if given adequate space and nutrients. Their average growth rate by weight is about half the growth rate of domesticated carp[13][14] They do not reach the lengths and weights of domesticated carp, which (range, 3.2–4.8 times)[2] can grow to a maximum length of 120 centimetres (47 in), a maximum weight of over 40 kilograms (88 lb),[2] and an oldest recorded age of 65 years.[14] The largest recorded carp, caught by an angler in January 2010 at Lac de curtons (Rainbow Lake) near Bordeaux, France, weighed 42.6 kilograms (94 lb).[15] The largest recorded carp, caught by British angler, Colin Smith, in 2013 at Etang La Saussaie Fishery, France, weighed 45.59 kilograms (100.5 lb). The average size of the common carp is around 40–80 cm (15.75-31.5 inches) and 2–14 kg (4.5-31 lb).

The skeleton of a common carp.
Common carp x-ray

Habitat

Carps from Vltava River, Czech Republic

Although tolerant of most conditions, common carp prefer large bodies of slow or standing water and soft, vegetative sediments. As schooling fish, they prefer to be in groups of five or more. They naturally live in temperate climates in fresh or slightly brackish water with a pH of 6.5–9.0 and salinity up to about 0.5%,[16] and temperatures of 3 to 35 °C (37–95 °F).[2] The ideal temperature is 23 to 30 °C (73–86 °F), with spawning beginning at 17 to 18 °C (63–64 °F); they easily survive winter in a frozen-over pond, as long as some free water remains below the ice.[16] Carp are able to tolerate water with very low oxygen levels, by gulping air at the surface.[3]

Diet

Common carp are omnivorous. They can eat a herbivorous diet of water plants, but prefer to scavenge the bottom for insects, crustaceans (including zooplankton), crawfish, and benthic worms.

Reproduction

An egg-layer, a typical adult female can lay 300,000 eggs in a single spawn.[17] Although carp typically spawn in the spring, in response to rising water temperatures and rainfall, carp can spawn multiple times in a season. In commercial operations, spawning is often stimulated using a process called hypophysation, where lyophilized pituitary extract is injected into the fish. The pituitary extract contains gonadotropic hormones which stimulate gonad maturation and sex steroid production, ultimately promoting reproduction.

Predation

A single carp can lay over a million eggs in a year,[3] yet their population remains the same, so the eggs and young perish in similarly vast numbers. Eggs and fry often fall victim to bacteria, fungi, and the vast array of tiny predators in the pond environment. Carp which survive to juvenile are preyed upon by other fish such as the northern pike and largemouth bass, and a number of birds (including cormorants, herons, goosanders, and ospreys)[18] and mammals (including otter and mink).

Introduction into other habitats

Carp gather near a dock in Lake Powell, Arizona
Carp in the duck pond in Herbert Park, Dublin, Ireland
Koi feeding. The koi are ornamental varieties of domesticated carp and are kept in garden ponds. Although the koi's parent species has been considered the common carp, recent authorities believe it originates from an East Asian carp, possibly C. rubrofuscus.[1][5]

Common carp have been introduced to most continents and some 59 countries. In absence of natural predators or commercial fishing they may extensively alter their environments due to their reproductive rate and their feeding habit of grubbing through bottom sediments for food. In feeding, they may destroy, uproot, disturb and eat submerged vegetation, causing serious damage to native duck, such as canvasbacks, and fish populations.[19]

In Victoria, Australia, common carp has been declared as noxious fish species, the quantity a fisher can take is unlimited.[20] In South Australia, it is an offence for this species to be released back to the wild.[21] An Australian company produces plant fertilizer from carp.[22]

Efforts to eradicate a small colony from Tasmania's Lake Crescent without using chemicals have been successful, but the long-term, expensive and intensive undertaking is an example of both the possibility and difficulty of safely removing the species once it is established.[citation needed] One proposal, regarded as environmentally questionable, is to control common carp by deliberate exposing them to carp-specific koi herpes virus with its high mortality rate. The CSIRO has developed a technique for genetically modifying carp so that they only produce male offspring. This daughterless carp method shows promise for totally eradicating carp from Australia's waterways.

Common carp were brought to the United States in 1831.[23] In the late 19th century, they were distributed widely throughout the country by the government as a food-fish, but they are no longer prized as a food-fish. As in Australia, their introduction has been shown to have negative environmental consequences,[24] and they are usually considered to be invasive species.

In Utah, the common carp's population in Utah Lake is expected to be reduced by 75 percent by using nets to catch millions of them and either give them to people who will eat them or processing them into fertilizer. This, in turn, will give the native June sucker a chance to recover its declining population.[25] Another method is by trapping them in tributaries they use to spawn with seine nets and exposing them to rotenone. This method has shown to reduce their impact within 24 hours and greatly increase the native vegetation and desirable fish species. This also leaves the baby carp easily preyed upon by native fish.

Common carp are believed to have been introduced into the Canadian province of British Columbia from Washington. They were first noted in the Okanagan Valley in 1912, as was their rapid growth in population. Carp are currently distributed in the lower Columbia (Arrow Lakes), lower Kootenay, Kettle (Christina Lake), and throughout the Okanagan system.[26]

Global Aquaculture Production of common carp in tonnes from 1950 to 2013

As food and sport

Lake Prespa carp, as served.
A common carp caught with an artificial fly

Cyprinus carpio is the number one fish of aquaculture. The annual tonnage of common carp produced in China alone, not to mention the other cyprinids, exceeds the weight of all other fish, such as trout and salmon, produced by aquaculture worldwide. Roughly three million tonnes are produced annually, accounting for 14% of all farmed freshwater fish in 2002. China is by far the largest commercial producer, accounting for about 70% of carp production.[16] Carp is eaten in many parts of the world both when caught from the wild and raised in aquaculture. In Central Europe, it is a traditional part of a Christmas Eve dinner.

Hungarian Fisherman's soup, a specially prepared fish soup of carp alone or mixed with other freshwater fish, is part of the traditional meal for Christmas Eve in Hungary along with stuffed cabbage and poppy seed roll and walnut roll. A traditional Czech Christmas Eve dinner is a thick soup of carp's head and offal, fried carp meat with potato salad or boiled carp in black sauce. In some Czech families, the carp is not killed, but after Christmas returned to a river or pond. A Slovak Christmas Eve dinner is quite similar, with soup varying according to the region and fried carp as the main dish. In Western Europe, the carp is cultivated more commonly as a sport fish, although there is a small market as food fish.[27][28] Carp are mixed with other common fish to make gefilte fish, popular in Jewish cuisine.

Common carp are extremely popular with anglers in many parts of Europe, and their popularity as quarry is slowly increasing among anglers in the United States (though destroyed as pests in many areas), and southern Canada. Carp are also popular with spear, bow, and fly fishermen.

The Romans farmed carp and this pond culture continued through the monasteries of Europe and to this day. In China, Korea and Japan, carp farming took place as early as the Yayoi Period (c. 300 BC – 300 AD).[29]

Carp eggs, used for caviar, are increasingly popular in the United States.[citation needed]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Cyprinus carpio". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Fishbase: Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758
  3. ^ a b c Arkive: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
  4. ^ a b c Jian Feng Zhou, Qing Jiang Wu, Yu Zhen Ye & Jin Gou Tong (2003). Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp Genetica 119: 93–97
  5. ^ a b c Craig, J.F., eds. (2015). Freshwater Fisheries Ecology. p. 297. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-118-39442-7.
  6. ^ Zhou, J., Wu, Q., Wang, Z. and Ye, Y. (2004). Molecular Phylogenetics of Three Subspecies of Common carp Cyprinus Carpio, based on sequence analysis of cytochrome b and control region of mtDNA. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 42(4): 266–269.
  7. ^ Taylor, J., R. Mahon. 1977. Hybridization of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus, the first two exotic species in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes. Environmental Biology Of Fishes 1(2):205-208.
  8. ^ Photo of goldfish x common carp hybrid in Melton Hill Reservoir from the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency
  9. ^ "Common Carp." Aliens Among Us. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2014. <http://alienspecies.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/eng/species/common-carp>.
  10. ^ Balon, E. K. (2004). About the oldest domesticates among fishes. Journal of Fish Biology, 65 (Supplement A): 1–27. In Carp Fishing Science
  11. ^ Aanvullend Archeologisch Onderzoek op terrein 9 te Houten-Loerik, gemeente Houten (U.)
  12. ^ Ray Jordan Koi History
  13. ^ Wilt, R.S. de; Emmerik W.A.M. (2008-01-31). "Kennisdocument Karper Sportvisserij Nederland". Retrieved December 13, 2011. 
  14. ^ a b Füllner G.; Pfeifer M.; Langner N. "Karpfenteichwirtschaft" (PDF). Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft. Retrieved December 13, 2011. 
  15. ^ Lac de curtons (in French)
  16. ^ a b c Food and Agriculture Organization Fisheries & Aquaculture: Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme – Cyprinus carpio
  17. ^ "Carp Fishing for carp fishing information". Carp-fishing.org. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  18. ^ Cramp, S. (ed.). The Birds of the Western Palearctic volumes 1 (1977) & 2 (1980). OUP.
  19. ^ "Welcome to". Lakeconservation.com. 2010-01-15. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  20. ^ Victorian Recreational Fishing Guide 2006-2007
  21. ^ fishsa.com
  22. ^ carp as fertilizer Archived 2007-01-25 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ [1] Archived October 7, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program
  25. ^ Maffly, Brian (September 1, 2015). "Utah Lake carp census gauges whether evictions-by-the-ton are succeeding". The Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on May 22, 2017. Retrieved May 22, 2017. 
  26. ^ Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) on Living Landscapes, from the Royal British Columbia Museum
  27. ^ [2] Archived July 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ [3] Archived January 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ Daily Yomiuri newspaper, September 19, 2008

External links

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_carp

Minckley’s Cichlid

Herichthys minckleyi

 Minckley’s Cichlid | Herichthys minckleyi

 

 

 

 

 


 

Atlantic Stingray


Atlantic Stingray | Dasyatis sabina 

 


 

Atlantic Stingray info:

Atlantic stingray
Dasyatis sabina florida.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Subclass: Elasmobranchii
Order: Myliobatiformes
Family: Dasyatidae
Genus: Dasyatis
Species: D. sabina
Binomial name
Dasyatis sabina
(Lesueur, 1824)
Dasyatis sabina rangemap.png
Range of the Atlantic stingray
Synonyms

Trygon sabina Lesueur, 1824

The Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) is a species of stingray in the family Dasyatidae, common along the Atlantic coast of North America from Chesapeake Bay to Mexico, including brackish and freshwater habitats. It may be distinguished from other stingrays in the area by its relatively elongated snout.[2] This species is of little commercial importance,[3] other than for sale in the aquarium industry.

Taxonomy and phylogeny

The Atlantic stingray was described by French naturalist Charles Alexandre Lesueur as Trygon sabina, in an 1824 volume of the Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. He based his account on a damaged male specimen collected by American naturalist Titian Ramsay Peale during the Academy's 1817 expedition to Florida.[4] Since then, various authors have included this species in the obsolete genera Pastinaca, Dasybatus (or the variants Dasibatis and Dasybatis), and Amphotistius, all of which were eventually synonymized with the genus Dasyatis.[5]

A 2001 phylogenetic analysis by Lisa Rosenberger, based on morphology, found that the Atlantic stingray is one of the more basal members of its genus. It is the outgroup to a large clade that contains, amongst others, the southern stingray (D. americana), the roughtail stingray (D. centroura), the longnose stingray (D. guttata), and the pearl stingray (D. margaritella).[6]

Distribution and habitat

The Atlantic stingray is found over fine substrates.

The Atlantic Stingray is found in the western Atlantic Ocean from Chesapeake Bay southward to Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, to as far as Campeche, Mexico.[1] Records of this species from Grenada, Suriname, and Brazil are doubtful and may represent other species. The Atlantic stingray is capable of tolerating varying salinities and can enter freshwater; it has been reported from the Mississippi River, Lake Pontchartrain, and the St. Johns River in Florida.[7] The stingrays in the St. Johns River system represent the only permanent freshwater elasmobranch population in North America.[2][8][9]

This species inhabits shallow coastal waters over sandy or silty bottoms, estuaries, and lakes. They prefer water temperatures over 15 °C (59 °F) and can tolerate temperatures over 30 °C (86 °F). These stingrays conduct seasonal migrations to stay in warmer water: they are only present in the northerly Chesapeake bay in the summer and fall, and elsewhere they migrate to deeper water in the winter. When inshore, they usually stay at depths of 2–6 m (6.6–19.7 ft), and after migrating offshore they may be found as deep as 25 m (82 ft).[2]

Description

One of the smallest stingray species, the Atlantic stingray attains a maximum length of 61 cm (24 in) and a weight of 4.9 kg (11 lb).[3] It has a spade-shaped pectoral fin disk 1.1 times as wide as long, with rounded corners and concave anterior margins. The snout is relatively long. There are three stout papillae on the floor of the mouth; the teeth are rounded, with a flat, blunt surface. During the reproductive season, the teeth of mature males change to feature long, sharp cusps that curve towards the corners of the mouth, for gripping onto females during mating. The tail is long and whip-like, with a serrated spine measuring a quarter of the width of the disk. The spine is replaced annually between June and October. Dorsal and ventral fin folds are present on the tail.[2][7]

Larger Atlantic stingrays develop tubercles or thorns along the midline of the back to the origin of the tail spine. Some larger females also develop tubercles around the eyes and spiracles. The coloration is brown or yellowish brown above, becoming lighter towards the margin of the disk and sometimes with a dark stripe along the midline, and white or light gray below. The tail fin folds are yellowish. In larger individuals the tail may be flecked with gray near the base and completely dark towards the tip.[2][7]

Biology and ecology

A fetal Atlantic stingray

The Atlantic stingray feeds mostly on benthic invertebrates such as bivalves, tube anemones, amphipods, crustaceans, and nereid worms, which they locate using their electroreceptive ampullae of Lorenzini. The exact composition of their diet varies by geographical location. When feeding, these rays will position themselves facing the current so that the sediment will be washed away.[10] Numerous species of sharks, such as the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) and the bull shark (Carcharhinas leucas), are major predators of the Atlantic stingray. In freshwater habitats, they may be preyed upon by American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). A known parasite of freshwater Atlantic stingrays is Argulus, a fish louse that feeds on skin mucus.[2]

Despite having a regular freshwater presence, the Atlantic stingray is physiologically euryhaline and no population has evolved the specialized osmoregulatory mechanisms found in the river stingrays of the family Potamotrygonidae. This may be due to the relatively recent date of freshwater colonization (under one million years), and/or possibly incomplete genetic isolation of the freshwater populations, as they remain capable of surviving in salt water. Freshwater Atlantic stingrays have only 30–50% the concentration of urea and other osmolytes in their blood compared to marine populations. However, the osmotic pressure between their internal fluids and external environment still causes water to diffuse into their bodies, and they must produce large quantities of dilute urine (at 10 times the rate of marine individuals) to compensate.[8]

Like other stingrays, the Atlantic stingray is viviparous. Both marine and freshwater populations in Florida have an annual mating season from September or October to April, though ovulation does not occur until late March or early April. Courtship involves the male following the female and biting at her body and fins, and the male will grip onto the female's pectoral fin to assist in copulation. The embryos are sustained by a yolk sac until around day 60, after which they are nourished by uterine milk secreted by the mother (histotrophy). Litters of 1–4 young are born from late July to early August, after a gestation period of 4–4.5 months. Newborns measure 10–13 centimetres (3.9–5.1 in) wide. Marine males mature at a disk width of 20 cm (7.9 in) and females at a disk width of 24 cm (9.4 in). Freshwater males mature at a disk width of 21 cm (8.3 in) and females at a disk width of 22 cm (8.7 in).[2][11]

Human interactions

If stepped on, the Atlantic stingray can inflict a painful, though rarely life-threatening wound. Large numbers of Atlantic stingrays are caught as bycatch in gillnets targeting flounder off North Carolina, but most are released alive. They are also caught as bycatch in small numbers in recreational and commercial trout gillnets, shark drift nets, and nearshore trawls. As there is no fishery targeting this species and bycatch mortality appears to be low, it was assessed as of Least Concern by the World Conservation Union.[1] However, some localized freshwater populations have shown reduced health and reproduction due to declining water quality.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b c Piercy, A.; Snelson Jr., F.F. & Grubbs, R.D. (2006). "Dasyatis sabina". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved March 8, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Passarelli, N. and Piercy, A. Biological Profiles: Atlantic Stingray. Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department. Retrieved on March 9, 2009.
  3. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2009). "Dasyatis sabina" in FishBase. March 2009 version.
  4. ^ Lesueur, C.A. (1824). "Description of several species of the Linnaean genus Raia, of North America". Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 4 (1): 100–121. 
  5. ^ Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder (1953). Fishes of the Western North Atlantic, Part 2. Sears Foundation for Marine Research, Yale University. pp. 370–378.
  6. ^ Rosenberger, L.J.; Schaefer, S. A. (August 6, 2001). Schaefer, S. A., ed. "Phylogenetic Relationships within the Stingray Genus Dasyatis (Chondrichthyes: Dasyatidae)". Copeia. 2001 (3): 615–627. JSTOR 1448284. doi:10.1643/0045-8511(2001)001[0615:PRWTSG]2.0.CO;2. 
  7. ^ a b c McEachran, J.D. & Fechhelm, J.D. (1998). Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico: Myxiniformes to Gasterosteiformes. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-75206-7. 
  8. ^ a b Piermarini, P.M. & Evans, D.H. (1998). "Osmoregulation of the Atlantic Stingray (Dasyatis sabina) from the Freshwater Lake Jesup of the St. Johns River, Florida". Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 71 (5): 553–560. PMID 9754532. doi:10.1086/515973. 
  9. ^ Johnson, Michael R.; Snelson Jr., Franklin F. (1996). "Reproductive Life History of the Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina (Pisces, Dasyatidae), in the Freshwater St. Johns River, Florida". Bulletin of Marine Science. 59 (1): 76. 
  10. ^ Murch, A. Atlantic stingray. Elasm-diver.com. Retrieved on March 8, 2009.
  11. ^ Snelson Jr., F.F.; Williams-Hooper, S.E. & Schmid, T.H. (Aug 3, 1988). "Reproduction and Ecology of the Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis sabina, in Florida Coastal Lagoons". Copeia. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. 1988 (3): 729–739. JSTOR 1445395. doi:10.2307/1445395. 
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_stingray

 

Atlantic Croaker


Atlantic Croaker by Inked Animal

Atlantic Croaker | Micropogon undulatus 

 


 

Atlantic Croaker info via Wikipedia:

Atlantic croaker
Micropogonias undulatus (line art).jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Sciaenidae
Genus: Micropogonias
Species: M. undulatus
Binomial name
Micropogonias undulatus
(Linnaeus, 1766)

The Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) is a species of marine ray-finned fish belonging to the family Sciaenidae and is closely related to the black drum (Pogonias cromis), the silver perch (Bairdiella chrysoura), the spot croaker (Leiostomus xanthurus), the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), the spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), and the weakfish (Cynoscion regalis). This fish is commonly found in sounds and estuaries from Massachusetts to the Gulf of Mexico.

Description

Atlantic croaker in Pass Christian, Mississippi

The name croaker is descriptive of the noise the fish makes by vibrating strong muscles against its swim bladder, which acts as a resonating chamber much like a ball. The Atlantic croaker is the loudest of the drum family. The fish is also referred to as a hardhead, with smaller ones called pin heads. During spawning season (August to October), croakers turn a deep golden color, from this comes the name golden croaker. Beginning in August, tiny young enter the Chesapeake Bay and travel to low-salinity and freshwater creeks. They move to deeper parts of tidal rivers for the winter. Juveniles leave the Bay with the adults the following autumn.[1] When full-grown (two to three years), croakers reach between 1-1/2 feet long and 4-5 pounds, but on average are 1/2-2 pounds. The Chesapeake Bay record Atlantic croaker, caught in August 2007 off New Point Comfort Lighthouse in Virginia, weighed 8 pounds, 11 ounces and measured 27 inches long. They have traditionally been used for food by Native Americans, and their remains are found in shell middens. [2] These fish are popular catches among recreational anglers.

Distribution and habitat

The Atlantic croaker is native to coastal waters in the western Atlantic Ocean. Its range extends from Massachusetts to Mexico and includes the northern half of the Caribbean Sea but possibly not the southern Gulf of Mexico or the Antilles. It is also thought to live on the coasts of southern Brazil and Argentina. It is usually found in bays and estuaries over sandy or muddy bottoms where it feeds on polychaete worms, crustaceans and small fish.[3] The croaker visits the Chesapeake Bay from March through October and is found throughout the Bay as far north as the Susquehanna Flats.[4]

Management

Croaker populations greatly vary from year to year, and can be dependent on the conditions of their habitats. Their management is challenging due to the variability in their numbers.<Linnaeus, 1758ref name=FishBase/>

References

  1. ^ Program, Chesapeake Bay. "Atlantic Croaker - Chesapeake Bay Program". www.chesapeakebay.net. 
  2. ^ "Atlantic Croaker_ Taxonomy and Basic Description" (PDF). 
  3. ^ " Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus, 1766): Atlantic croaker". FishBase. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  4. ^ "Atlantic Croaker". Chesapeake Bay Program. Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  • Robins, C. Richard, G. Carleton Ray, and John Douglass. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes-North America. Houghton Mifflin Company. New York. 1986. 184-188.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_croaker

 

Spotted Sea Trout – red

Spotted Sea Trout | Cynoscion nebulosus

 


 

Spotted Sea Trout info via Wikipedia:

Cynoscion nebulosus
Spotted seatrout fish cynoscion nebulosus.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Sciaenidae
Genus: Cynoscion
Species: C. nebulosus
Binomial name
Cynoscion nebulosus
(Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830)

Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout, also known as speckled trout, is a common estuarine fish found in the southern United States along coasts of Gulf of Mexico and the coastal Atlantic Ocean from Maryland to Florida. These fish are also found in estuarine locations around Cape Breton Island of Nova Scotia, Canada. While most of these fish are caught on shallow, grassy flats, spotted seatrout reside in virtually any inshore waters, from the surf of outside islands to far up coastal rivers, where they often come for shelter during cold weather. Contrary to its name, the spotted seatrout is not a member of the trout family (Salmonidae), but of the drum family (Sciaenidae). It is popular for commercial and especially recreational fishing in coastal waters of the southeastern United States. Adults reach 19-32 inches in length and 3-15 pounds in weight.

Distribution

Spotted seatrout live in the top of the water column and are most numerous along the coasts of the southeastern states, such as Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Florida. They are also common along the coasts of North and South Carolina and Virginia. Estuarine coasts are prime settlement areas. They are uncommonly seen north of Delaware Bay and along the coast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

Characteristics

Spotted seatrout is the common name endorsed by the American Fisheries Society. However, this fish has many other common names, including speckled trout, speck, speckles, spec, truite gris (Louisiana French), trucha de mar (Mexican Spanish), spotted weakfish, spotted seateague, southern seateague, salmon, salmon trout, simon trout, winter trout, seatrout, Nosferatu fish, and black trout. Particularly large ones are nicknamed gator trout.[1]

The spotted seatrout has prominent canine teeth. Like other fish of the family Sciaenidae, it has an elongated, soft dorsal fin witn scales; it is separated from the spinous dorsal fin by a deep notch. It usually has two anal spines and the lateral line extends to the tip of the caudal fin. The back has distinct spots scattered on it, including on the dorsal and caudal fins. Unlike some other members of the family Sciaenidae, the spotted seatrout does not have any chin barbels. In stained water, this fish's background may take on a golden hue. Its shape and coloration is reminiscent of a brown trout. This fish is closely related to the weakfish, Cynoscion regalis.

The average size of spotted seatrout is 0.5-1.0 kg (1-2 lb), but in most areas fish up to 2.5 kg (5 lb) are fairly common. Fish weighing 3.5-4.5 kg (8-10 lb) are rare. The world record is 7.9 kg (17 lb 7 oz).

Food

Small trout eat large amounts of shrimp and other crustaceans. As they grow larger, their diets shift toward fish, the larger, the better. Studies in Texas and Mississippi show that really big trout strongly prefer to feed on mullet; a large trout will find the largest mullet it can handle and try to swallow it. Often the mullet is half or two-thirds as large as the trout.[2]

Reproduction and growth

Like all members of the drum family, mature males make a "drumming" sound to attract females during the spawning season. Spotted seatrout have a long spawning season from spring through summer.

Larval seatrout reach 5–7 mm in length about two weeks after hatching, and 170–200 mm within about seven months. It takes between one and two years for seatrout to reach 300 mm (about 12 inches) and between two and three years to reach 400 mm in length (about 16 inches). The maximum age of spotted seatrout that have been caught is estimated to be 12 years old, though that is rare, and the oldest fish caught on a regular basis are closer to four or five years old.[3]

By the end of the first year, spotted seatrout are about 250 mm long and about half of them are mature enough to reproduce.[3][4] They reproduce in shallow, grassy areas of estuaries.

As spotted seatrout grow longer, they increase in weight. The relationship between weight and length is not linear. The relationship between total length (in millimeters) and weight (in grams) can be expressed by an equation of the form:

W = c L b {\displaystyle W=cL^{b}\!\,} W=cL^{b}\!\,

Spotted seatrout weight vs. length[5]

Invariably, b is close to 3.0 for all species, and c is a constant that varies among species.[6] The coefficient c and the exponent b are found by fitting an equation of this form to measured weight-length data. For some fish, including spotted seatrout, the weight-length relationships vary with the seasons and with gender.[3] Jenkins[5] reported slightly different relationships for male and female spotted seatrout, and for fall and spring:

Fall/male: W = 0.00000534L3.093

Spring/male: W = 0.000011535L2.989

Fall/female: W = 0.000006252L3.066

Spring/female: W = 0.000007834L3.035

Only the relationship for male spotted seatrout in the spring appears noticeably different from the others on a graph.

Fishing

While spotted seatrout are caught by both commercial and recreational fishermen, recreational fishing represents the vast majority of the catch. Almost all spotted seatrout are caught with hook and line, as many places have banned fishing for them with gillnets.

Speckled trout are among the top ten species for recreational fishing in the United States.

According to the NOAA, spotted seatrout are in the top ten species for recreational fishing in the United States.[7] From 1993 – 2003, recreational fishermen in Louisiana harvested more than 6 million spotted seatrout each year.[2] Along the coasts of North Carolina and Virginia, more than half a million speckled trout were caught by recreational fishermen each year between 2005 and 2008.[8] Nevertheless, because they reproduce so well, spotted seatrout is listed as a “best choice” for sustainable seafood in Louisiana and Florida by the Monterey Bay Aquarium's Seafood Watch.


Management

The management of the species is limited to size and possession limits, but programs have been initiated to gather more information on their overall health and abundance.[9]

External links

References

  1. ^ Ford, F., D.T., Clarke, P. Kaminsky. Fish: 77 Great Fish of North America. The Greenwich Workshop Press, Seymour, Connecticut, pp:76-77
  2. ^ a b Horst, J. Speckled Trout Fact Sheet SeaGrant Louisiana. 2005 p. 1-2
  3. ^ a b c Murphy, MD and McMichael, RH. Age determination and growth of spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus (Pisces: Sciaenidae). In Bortone, S.A., ed., Biology of the Spotted Seatrout. CRC Press, 2003
  4. ^ DeVries, DA et al. The demographics and reproductive biology of spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, in six northwest Florida estuaries.In Bortone, S.A., ed., Biology of the Spotted Seatrout. CRC Press, 2003
  5. ^ a b Jenkins, J.A. Fish Bioindicators of Ecosystem Condition at the Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana. USGS National Wetlands Research Center, Lafayette, LA. Open-File Report 2004-1323
  6. ^ R. O. Anderson and R. M. Neumann, Length, Weight, and Associated Structural Indices, in Fisheries Techniques, second edition, B.E. Murphy and D.W. Willis, eds., American Fisheries Society, 1996.
  7. ^ Monterey Bay Aquarium sustainable seafood report for Spotted Seatrout, October, 2011
  8. ^ North Carolina Spotted Seatrout Fishery Management Plan. North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries. March, 2010
  9. ^ "Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission: Spotted Seatrout". Archived from the original on 2004-04-27. Retrieved 2009-06-30. 
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spotted_sea_trout

 

 

Spotted Sea Trout – head


 Spotted Sea Trout | Cynoscion nebulosus


 

Spotted Sea Trout info via Wikipedia:

Cynoscion nebulosus
Spotted seatrout fish cynoscion nebulosus.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Sciaenidae
Genus: Cynoscion
Species: C. nebulosus
Binomial name
Cynoscion nebulosus
(Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830)

Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout, also known as speckled trout, is a common estuarine fish found in the southern United States along coasts of Gulf of Mexico and the coastal Atlantic Ocean from Maryland to Florida. These fish are also found in estuarine locations around Cape Breton Island of Nova Scotia, Canada. While most of these fish are caught on shallow, grassy flats, spotted seatrout reside in virtually any inshore waters, from the surf of outside islands to far up coastal rivers, where they often come for shelter during cold weather. Contrary to its name, the spotted seatrout is not a member of the trout family (Salmonidae), but of the drum family (Sciaenidae). It is popular for commercial and especially recreational fishing in coastal waters of the southeastern United States. Adults reach 19-32 inches in length and 3-15 pounds in weight.

Distribution

Spotted seatrout live in the top of the water column and are most numerous along the coasts of the southeastern states, such as Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Florida. They are also common along the coasts of North and South Carolina and Virginia. Estuarine coasts are prime settlement areas. They are uncommonly seen north of Delaware Bay and along the coast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

Characteristics

Spotted seatrout is the common name endorsed by the American Fisheries Society. However, this fish has many other common names, including speckled trout, speck, speckles, spec, truite gris (Louisiana French), trucha de mar (Mexican Spanish), spotted weakfish, spotted seateague, southern seateague, salmon, salmon trout, simon trout, winter trout, seatrout, Nosferatu fish, and black trout. Particularly large ones are nicknamed gator trout.[1]

The spotted seatrout has prominent canine teeth. Like other fish of the family Sciaenidae, it has an elongated, soft dorsal fin witn scales; it is separated from the spinous dorsal fin by a deep notch. It usually has two anal spines and the lateral line extends to the tip of the caudal fin. The back has distinct spots scattered on it, including on the dorsal and caudal fins. Unlike some other members of the family Sciaenidae, the spotted seatrout does not have any chin barbels. In stained water, this fish's background may take on a golden hue. Its shape and coloration is reminiscent of a brown trout. This fish is closely related to the weakfish, Cynoscion regalis.

The average size of spotted seatrout is 0.5-1.0 kg (1-2 lb), but in most areas fish up to 2.5 kg (5 lb) are fairly common. Fish weighing 3.5-4.5 kg (8-10 lb) are rare. The world record is 7.9 kg (17 lb 7 oz).

Food

Small trout eat large amounts of shrimp and other crustaceans. As they grow larger, their diets shift toward fish, the larger, the better. Studies in Texas and Mississippi show that really big trout strongly prefer to feed on mullet; a large trout will find the largest mullet it can handle and try to swallow it. Often the mullet is half or two-thirds as large as the trout.[2]

Reproduction and growth

Like all members of the drum family, mature males make a "drumming" sound to attract females during the spawning season. Spotted seatrout have a long spawning season from spring through summer.

Larval seatrout reach 5–7 mm in length about two weeks after hatching, and 170–200 mm within about seven months. It takes between one and two years for seatrout to reach 300 mm (about 12 inches) and between two and three years to reach 400 mm in length (about 16 inches). The maximum age of spotted seatrout that have been caught is estimated to be 12 years old, though that is rare, and the oldest fish caught on a regular basis are closer to four or five years old.[3]

By the end of the first year, spotted seatrout are about 250 mm long and about half of them are mature enough to reproduce.[3][4] They reproduce in shallow, grassy areas of estuaries.

As spotted seatrout grow longer, they increase in weight. The relationship between weight and length is not linear. The relationship between total length (in millimeters) and weight (in grams) can be expressed by an equation of the form:

W = c L b {\displaystyle W=cL^{b}\!\,} W=cL^{b}\!\,

Spotted seatrout weight vs. length[5]

Invariably, b is close to 3.0 for all species, and c is a constant that varies among species.[6] The coefficient c and the exponent b are found by fitting an equation of this form to measured weight-length data. For some fish, including spotted seatrout, the weight-length relationships vary with the seasons and with gender.[3] Jenkins[5] reported slightly different relationships for male and female spotted seatrout, and for fall and spring:

Fall/male: W = 0.00000534L3.093

Spring/male: W = 0.000011535L2.989

Fall/female: W = 0.000006252L3.066

Spring/female: W = 0.000007834L3.035

Only the relationship for male spotted seatrout in the spring appears noticeably different from the others on a graph.

Fishing

While spotted seatrout are caught by both commercial and recreational fishermen, recreational fishing represents the vast majority of the catch. Almost all spotted seatrout are caught with hook and line, as many places have banned fishing for them with gillnets.

Speckled trout are among the top ten species for recreational fishing in the United States.

According to the NOAA, spotted seatrout are in the top ten species for recreational fishing in the United States.[7] From 1993 – 2003, recreational fishermen in Louisiana harvested more than 6 million spotted seatrout each year.[2] Along the coasts of North Carolina and Virginia, more than half a million speckled trout were caught by recreational fishermen each year between 2005 and 2008.[8] Nevertheless, because they reproduce so well, spotted seatrout is listed as a “best choice” for sustainable seafood in Louisiana and Florida by the Monterey Bay Aquarium's Seafood Watch.


Management

The management of the species is limited to size and possession limits, but programs have been initiated to gather more information on their overall health and abundance.[9]

External links

References

  1. ^ Ford, F., D.T., Clarke, P. Kaminsky. Fish: 77 Great Fish of North America. The Greenwich Workshop Press, Seymour, Connecticut, pp:76-77
  2. ^ a b Horst, J. Speckled Trout Fact Sheet SeaGrant Louisiana. 2005 p. 1-2
  3. ^ a b c Murphy, MD and McMichael, RH. Age determination and growth of spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus (Pisces: Sciaenidae). In Bortone, S.A., ed., Biology of the Spotted Seatrout. CRC Press, 2003
  4. ^ DeVries, DA et al. The demographics and reproductive biology of spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, in six northwest Florida estuaries.In Bortone, S.A., ed., Biology of the Spotted Seatrout. CRC Press, 2003
  5. ^ a b Jenkins, J.A. Fish Bioindicators of Ecosystem Condition at the Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana. USGS National Wetlands Research Center, Lafayette, LA. Open-File Report 2004-1323
  6. ^ R. O. Anderson and R. M. Neumann, Length, Weight, and Associated Structural Indices, in Fisheries Techniques, second edition, B.E. Murphy and D.W. Willis, eds., American Fisheries Society, 1996.
  7. ^ Monterey Bay Aquarium sustainable seafood report for Spotted Seatrout, October, 2011
  8. ^ North Carolina Spotted Seatrout Fishery Management Plan. North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries. March, 2010
  9. ^ "Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission: Spotted Seatrout". Archived from the original on 2004-04-27. Retrieved 2009-06-30. 
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spotted_sea_trout

 

 

Striped Mullet

 Striped Mullet | Mugil cephalus



 

Striped Mullet info via wikipedia:

Flathead grey mullet
A preserved mullet.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Mugiliformes
Family: Mugilidae
Genus: Mugil
Species: M. cephalus
Binomial name
Mugil cephalus
Linnaeus, 1758

The flathead grey mullet[2] (Mugil cephalus) is an important food fish species in the mullet family Mugilidae. It is found in coastal tropical and subtropical waters worldwide.[2] Its length is typically 30 to 75 centimetres (12 to 30 in). It is known with numerous English names, including the flathead mullet, striped mullet (US, American Fisheries Society name), black mullet, bully mullet, common mullet, grey mullet, sea mullet and mullet, among others.[1][3]

The flathead grey mullet is a mainly diurnal coastal species that often enters estuaries and rivers. It usually schools over sand or mud bottoms, feeding on zooplankton. The adult fish normally feed on algae in fresh water. The species is euryhaline, meaning that the fish can acclimate to different levels of salinity.[4]

Description

The back of the fish is olive-green, sides are silvery and shade to white towards the belly.[2] The fish may have six to seven distinctive lateral horizontal stripes. Lips are thin.[2] The mullet has no lateral line. A common length is about 50 centimetres (20 in), and its maximum length is 100 centimetres (39 in).[2] It can reach a maximum weight of eight kilograms (18 lb).[4]

Mugil cephalus.jpg

Range

The flathead mullet is cosmopolitan in coastal waters of the tropical, subtropical and temperate zones of all seas.[2] It occupies fresh, brackish and marine habitats in depths ranging between 0–120 metres (0–394 ft) and with temperatures between 8–24 °C (46–75 °F).[4]

Western US freshwater occurrence

In freshwaters of the western United States, the striped mullet historically ranged far up the Colorado River to the vicinity of Blythe and up the Gila River to perhaps Tacna. Because of the dams and restricted flows to the Gulf of California, the range in Arizona is restricted to the Colorado River below Laguna Dam and the lower end of the Gila River when there is water present. They are often abundant in the mainstream and lateral canals in the Gila River region.[5]

In the Colorado River mullet are pelagic in larger pools, sometimes moving into currents below dams, and generally occurring in small groups.[4] The mullet populations are currently declining in Arizona, due to periods when the Colorado River does not reach the Gulf of California.

Fisheries and aquaculture

The flathead grey mullet is an important food fish around the world, and it is both fished and farmed. The reported worldwide catches from fishing in 2012 were about 130,000 tonnes and aquaculture production was 142,000 tonnes.[6]

Cuisine

Drying mullet roe in Taiwan.

The roe of this mullet is salted, dried, and compressed to make a specialty food across the world, such as Greek avgotaraho, Taiwanese Wuyutsu, Korean myeongran jeot, Japanese karasumi, Italian bottarga, Turkish Haviar and Egyptian batarekh. In Egypt, the fish itself is salted, dried, and pickled to make feseekh.

On the coast of Northwest Florida and Alabama, this mullet, called the striped or black mullet, is often a specialty of seafood restaurants. Fried mullet is most popular, but smoked, baked, and canned mullet are also eaten. Local fishermen usually catch mullet in a castnet, though some use a hook. Mullet is a delicacy in this area and is most often consumed in the home. Mullet are usually filleted, and the remaining frames used for fish stock, used in chowders and stews.[7] The mullet most commonly consumed in Florida however is the white mullet (Mugil curema), because its preference for cleaner water gives it a cleaner and less muddy taste.[8]

References

  1. ^ a b Kottelat, M. & Freyhof, J. 2012. Mugil cephalus The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. Downloaded on 01 November 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Mugil cephalus" in FishBase. April 2014 version.
  3. ^ Common names of Mugil cephalus FishBase (2014)
  4. ^ a b c d Minckley, W.L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix. pp. 257-258.
  5. ^ Animal abstract: Mugil cephalus ARIZONA GAME AND FISH DEPARTMENT
  6. ^ "FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture - Species Fact Sheets - Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758)". fao.org. Archived from the original on 2015-11-05. Retrieved 2016-04-30. 
  7. ^ Instituto Veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti environmental database on the pool of Venice
  8. ^ McKee, David (2008). Fishes of the Laguna Madre. College Station, Tx: Texas A&M University Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-60344-028-8. 
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mugil_cephalus

 

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